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TCRAD Breakapart

Catalogue Numbers
LPH 047-S (5 tests)
LPH 047 (10 tests)

Dysregulation of normal transcription is a feature of all types of acute leukaemia. In T-ALL, this is brought about by altered expression of normal transcription factor proteins, which is in contrast with AML and B-ALL, where chimaeric proteins are expressed and provide the drivers for the malignancy.

T-ALL composes around 12-15% of childhood ALL1. In about 30% of these cases, chromosomal rearrangements involving the T-cell receptor genes TRA@ (TCRA), TRB@ (TCRB), TRG@ (TCRG) and TRD@ (TCRD) have been described2. It has been suggested that a number of developmentally important transcription factor genes are dysregulated as a result of being brought into close proximity with the promoter and enhancer elements of one of these T-cell receptor genes3. These can be more clearly demonstrated by FISH than by using conventional cytogenetics4.

The TCRAD complex, on chromosome 14q11.2 has been shown to be involved in a number of different translocations in T-ALL. These include the t(10;14)(q24;q11) involving TLX1 (HOX11); the t(1;14)(p32;q11) involving TAL1; the t(11;14)(p15;q11) involving LMO1 and the t(11;14)(p13;q11) involving LMO2. The relative frequencies for these rearrangements in children have been estimated to be 7, 3, 2 and 3% respectively5.

The quality of the products we have received from Cytocell have been excellent. The FISH probes they provide to us give intense, strong signals and are a pleasure to count. What has really stood out however has been the level of support and assistance provided by Cytocell’s application specialists. The team worked very closely alongside our own during the adoption of this product and spent many hours with us perfecting the technique, going above and beyond what I would expect during the transition period. Source BioScience absolutely demand high quality products and service to be able to deliver our results with confidence, and that is what we have received from Cytocell. Neil Ryan, Laboratory Operations Manager at Source BioScience


1. Schneider NR et al., Blood 2000;96:2543-9

2. Secker-Walker LM, Chromosomes and Genes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia. New York: Chapman and Hall 1997

3. Raimondi SC. T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. May 2007

4. Gesk S et al., Leukemia 2003;17:738-45

5. Graux C et al., Leukemia 2006;20:1496-510

Microscope Images

TCRAD Breakapart magnified
Area of Interest*


This product is intended to be used on Carnoy’s solution (3:1 methanol/acetic acid) fixed haematological samples.

*Disease information supported by the literature and is not a reflection of the intended purpose of this product.