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TLX1 Breakapart

Catalogue Numbers
LPH 049-S (5 tests)
LPH 049 (10 tests)

Dysregulation of normal transcription is a feature of all acute leukaemias. In T-cell neoplasms, this is brought about by altered expression of normal transcription factor proteins, often as a consequence of chromosomal translocations or inversions placing these genes into close proximity of the promoter and enhancer elements of the T-cell receptor genes, TRA@ (TCRA), TRB@ (TCRB), TRG@ (TCRG) and TRD@ (TCRD)1.

Murine studies show that expression of mouse homologues of TLX1 (T-Cell Leukaemia Homeobox 1 or HOX11) can immortalize haematopoietic cells in vitro as the first of a potential two-hit mechanism leading to full malignancy2. This work suggests that TLX1, which is aberrantly expressed in 30% of adult and 5-10% of childhood T-ALL cases3, is an oncogene that can become dysregulated through the translocations t(10;14)(q24;q11) and t(7;10)(q35;q24), placing it into close proximity to TCRA/D and TCRB elements respectively4. Breakpoints are clustered within a region 10kb centromeric to and immediately adjacent to TLX1.

I first came across Cytocell FISH probes in a previous lab I worked in and I was struck by the quality of the products. Since this time, I have been recommending and introducing Cytocell probes across all application areas — now they are the primary FISH probes used in our lab. They have an excellent range of products and their ready-to-use reagent format saves considerable time. As a matter of fact, at a recent conference there was a discussion about the lack of commercial probes for a particular disorder and I was happy to point the participants in the direction of the Cytocell catalogue, which contains the exact probes required. Elizabeth Benner, Medical Technologist at the University of Arizona Health Network 


1. Korsmeyer SJ, Annual Rev Immunol 1992;10:785-807

2. Hawley RG et al., Oncogene 1994;9:1-12

3. Riz et al., Oncogene (2005) 24, 5561–5575

4. Dubé ID et al., Blood 1991;78(11):2996-3003

Microscope Images

TLX1 Breakapart magnified
Area of Interest*


This product is intended to be used on Carnoy’s solution (3:1 methanol/acetic acid) fixed haematological samples.

*Disease information supported by the literature and is not a reflection of the intended purpose of this product.